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  • Writer's pictureOlayiwola Tosin

What is Switchable PDLC Smart Glass and How Does It Work?

Updated: Jun 26

In an era where innovative building materials are revolutionizing architectural designs and interior spaces, switchable PDLC smart glass stands out as a futuristic solution that deserves attention. From smart residential windows to cutting-edge corporate office partitions, this advanced technology incorporates multiple benefits, including privacy control, energy efficiency, and aesthetic appeal. This blog post aims to delve into the realm of switchable PDLC smart glass, shedding light on its functionality, mechanisms, and working principle. We will also introduce Smart Glass Africa, a leading manufacturer and installer of this ground-breaking technology in Nigeria, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Cameroon and Togo.

Conference room side with opaque glass
Conference room side with opaque glass

1. Understanding Switchable PDLC Smart Glass

Let’s start with the fact that the global smart glass market, which is estimated to reach USD 5.5 billion by 2023, has remarkable growth ahead of it. According to, this market is expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.5%, reaching an impressive USD 13.2 billion by the end of the forecast period in 2032. This substantial increase reflects the growing adoption and technological advancements driving the smart glass industry forward.

Let's continue with all the important details about switchable PDLC Smart Glass, also known as polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) glass, is an intelligent glazing solution that seamlessly transitions between transparent and opaque states. This innovation utilizes the principles of switchable technology and offers a versatile option for modern architecture and interior design.

Primarily, PDLC smart glass functions as privacy glass. When activated, the liquid crystals within the glass align in a manner that blocks light transmission, rendering the glass opaque. This property proves invaluable in settings where privacy is paramount, such as corporate boardrooms, medical facilities, and residential bathrooms. By offering instant privacy control, PDLC smart glass eliminates the need for traditional blinds or curtains, contributing to a sleek and modern aesthetic.

Moreover, the introduction of switchable technology in PDLC glass adds a layer of versatility to its applications. It can be integrated into windows, doors, skylights, and even projection screens. This adaptability not only enhances its practicality but also underscores its potential to revolutionize various sectors, from hospitality and healthcare to retail and transportation.

2. The Fabrication and Architecture of Smart Glass

Smart glass features a sophisticated layered architecture designed to control light transmission and optimize energy efficiency. At its core, this technology comprises two primary layers of either glass or high-grade plastic. Sandwiched between these layers is a liquid crystal film, which is essentially the heart of the smart glass.

This liquid crystal film is constructed from a polymer matrix embedded with liquid crystals. These liquid crystals are crucial for the functioning of smart glass, as they can change orientation when subjected to an electric current, thereby altering the transparency of the glass.

Encasing this polymer matrix is a transparent, conductive material known as Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), which is applied to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. ITO is selected for its excellent electrical conductivity and optical transparency, which are essential for the modulation of the liquid crystals and, consequently, the control of light passing through the glass.

To facilitate the flow of electricity that triggers the orientation of the liquid crystals, the structure incorporates a conductive copper busbar strip. This strip is a crucial component that ensures efficient electrical connectivity. The busbar strip is linked to a transformer, which regulates the voltage and current supplied to the ITO-coated PET film, thereby enabling precise control over the smart glass's transparency.

Overall, smart glass is an advanced composite material that leverages the unique properties of liquid crystals and conductive films to provide adaptive light control, offering both privacy and energy-saving benefits. This sophisticated engineering not only enhances the functionality of windows but also contributes to sustainable building practices by reducing the need for artificial lighting and climate control systems.

3. The Mechanism of PDLC Technology

At the heart of smart glass lies the intricate mechanism of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC). The core principle involves the suspension of microscopic liquid crystal droplets within a polymer matrix. When an electrical current is applied, these droplets align in such a way that the glass transitions between different states of transparency.

In its natural state, the liquid crystals are randomly oriented, scattering light and rendering the glass opaque. However, upon electrical activation, the liquid crystals align uniformly, allowing light to pass through and making the glass transparent. This dynamic adjustment between transparent and opaque states is fundamental to the technology’s functionality.

The concept of light modulation is central to the operation of PDLC technology. By controlling the alignment of liquid crystals, PDLC smart glass can modify the amount of light entering a room. This ability to regulate light transmission not only offers privacy on demand but also contributes to energy efficiency. For instance, in warmer climates, switching the glass to an opaque state can reduce solar heat gain, leading to lower air conditioning usage.

Furthermore, the technology behind PDLC glass ensures durability and longevity. The polymer matrix encapsulating the liquid crystals provides protection against environmental factors such as UV radiation and temperature fluctuations. Consequently, switchable PDLC glass maintains its performance over extended periods, making it a reliable choice for long-term applications.

4. How Switchable PDLC Smart Glass Operates

To comprehend the operation of switchable PDLC smart glass, it is essential to explore the role of voltage application and on/off functionality. The transformation between transparent and opaque states hinges on the application of an electrical voltage. When the voltage is applied, the liquid crystals align in a manner that permits light transmission. Conversely, when the voltage is removed, the liquid crystals revert to their disordered state, blocking light.

This on/off functionality provides users with the ability to control the transparency of the glass instantaneously. The instant switching capability is particularly advantageous in environments where rapid adjustments are required. For example, in conference rooms, the glass can switch from transparent to opaque in a matter of seconds, ensuring privacy during meetings while allowing natural light to permeate when privacy is not required.

Another significant aspect of switchable PDLC smart glass is its ability to control light. By adjusting the voltage applied to the glass, users can modulate the level of transparency, thereby controlling the amount of light entering a space. This feature enhances the versatility of PDLC smart glass, enabling it to serve as an energy-efficient solution. By reducing the need for artificial lighting and optimizing natural light usage, PDLC smart glass contributes to overall energy savings in buildings.

Moreover, energy consumption associated with PDLC smart glass is relatively low. The electricity required for switching is minimal, making it an energy-efficient choice for modern buildings. Once the glass transitions to the desired state, it requires only a small amount of power to maintain that state. This energy-saving characteristic aligns with the growing emphasis on sustainable building practices and energy-efficient technologies.


As the demand for innovative and efficient building solutions grows, switchable PDLC smart glass emerges as a groundbreaking technology that meets the needs of modern architecture and interior design. Its ability to provide privacy on demand, regulate light transmission, and enhance energy efficiency positions it as a valuable addition to both residential and commercial spaces.

Smart Glass Africa is a leading manufacturer and installer of PDLC smart glass, offering comprehensive solutions and unrivalled industry knowledge when it comes to the distribution and installation of Smart Glass in Nigeria, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Cameroon and Togo.

As we continue to embrace the possibilities of intelligent glazing, switchable PDLC smart glass undoubtedly paves the way for a future where innovation and functionality converge.


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